Disarmament, Demobilisation and Reintegration (DDR), to which repatriation is often added (DDRR), is a process aimed at stabilisation and is often a part of a broader Security Sector Reform (SSR) process. In its initial inception, DDR was exclusively focused on the ex-combatants themselves, but it has since become clear that interventions must also target host communities ensure that a political and economic create enabling environment is created for DDR to succeed and produce lasting results. Further, in today's realities, DDR & SSR efforts often take place in contexts where combatants are members of groups listed as terrorist organisations, which requires a shift in policies and practice.

Transition International provides expertise on the above with the following services:


  • Design and delivery of training programmes on DDR and SSR;
  • Training of police on human rights including children and women's rights;
  • Training on Gender Responsive DDR and SSR;
  • Training on the Prevention of Violent Extremism & Radicalisation (POVER).

Advisory Services:

  • Design of DDR strategies, programme documents, policies and frameworks;
  • Technical assistance to develop effective Small Arms and Light Weapons (SALW) reduction and management strategies and programmes Institutional capacity assessments of DDR commissions, and the design of capacity development strategies;
  • Evaluations of DDR and PVE programmes;
  • Evaluations of SSR and community security related programmes Design of reintegration programmes (see Reintegration and CBRS Desk).

Knowledge Development:

  • Applied research in drivers of recruitment and radicalization
  • Profiling and community perception surveys
  • Desk reviews and field studies on the DDR and the DDR-SSR nexus for policy recommendations;
  • Community perception surveys on perceived insecurity and security needs/priorities;
  • Pre-DDR & SSR assessments.

The DDR, SSR & POVER desk is coordinated by Irma Specht and Habib El Mrabt.