Disarmament, Demobilisation and Reintegration (DDR) processes, to which repatriation is often added (DDRR), are fundamental in the transition from war to peace and widely applied as part of any stabilisation effort. DDR is often part of broader Security Sector Reform (SSR) and state building processes. The variations and evolvements in the nature of violent conflicts determines the DDR trajectories in different complex contexts. Traditional and sequential D-D-R approaches evolved into several alternative and innovative practices such as Community Violence Reduction and reversing sequencing into RDD. Further, DDR has adapted its approach in the framework of and Counter/Prevention of Violence Extremism (C/PVE) and the rehabilitation and reintegration of foreign freighters and combatants disengaging from groups labelled as ‘terrorist organisations’. Further, DDR programmes now often take place in contexts of ongoing insecurity and recruitment. Therefore, more focus is now placed on community security and prevention of recruitment programming, as well as on Small Arms and Light Weapons (SALW) control. All above mentioned and related topics are covered under this desk.

Transition International provides expertise on the above with the following services:


  • Design and delivery of training programmes on DDR (including disarmament procedures, stockpile management, setting-up of demobilisation processes, reinsertion and reintegration programming)
  • Design and delivery of training programmes on SSR (including restructuring and rightsizing, interim security arrangements, integration of armed groups into national security forces, hybrid forces
  • Design and delivery of training programmes on Community Security (including CVR, (S)GBV prevention, community policing etc.)
  • Design and delivery of training programmes on SALW (including on community disarmament, local weapons storage, registration, weapon free zones, awareness etc.)
  • Screening, Prosecution, Rehabilitation and Reintegration (SPRR) and similar approaches geared at disengagement and reintegration of people captured or disengaged from groups labelled as terrorist organisations.


Advisory Services

  • High level policy advice to national and international decision makers
  • Design of context driven DDR, CVR and SSR policies, strategies and programmes.
  • Technical assistance to develop effective SALW reduction and management strategies and programmes
  • Institutional capacity assessments of DDR commissions and the design of capacity development strategies
  • Monitoring support and evaluations of DDR, CVR & SSR programmes.
  • Assessment and design of SSR and DDR management and coordination mechanisms
  • Support to donor relations and resource mobilization


Knowledge Development

  • Applied research in drivers of recruitment and community violence
  • Profiling, socio-economic opportunity mapping for reinsertion programming
  • DDR/SSR/CVR stakeholder mappings
  • Community perception surveys on perceived insecurity and security needs/priorities
  • SSR related assessments on current structures, needs and potential rightsizing
  • Gender and DDR assessments
  • Cross border recruitment and potential return of foreign fighters and their families


The DDR, CVR & SSR desk is coordinated by Irma Specht.